Who Invented the Fork?

Fork on a Table
Fork on a Table

If you’ve ever wondered who invented the fork, you’re not alone. The history of the fork is a fascinating one, with various cultures and time periods contributing to its development. While the exact origins of the fork are not entirely clear, historians believe that it likely originated in the Byzantine Empire in the 4th century.

Although forks were used in some elite circles in Persia by the 9th century, it wasn’t until much later that they became popular in Europe. The fork was introduced to Europe in the 10th century by Theophanu, the Byzantine wife of Emperor Otto the 2nd.

By the 11th century, forks had made their way to Italy and become popular among merchants by the 14th century. Despite their growing popularity, forks were not widely used in Europe until the 16th century.

The Origin of the Fork

You may be surprised to learn that the fork as we know it today has not been around for very long. In fact, it was not until the 10th century that forks began to be used in Europe, and they did not become common until several centuries later. So who invented the fork? The answer is not entirely clear, but there are a few theories.

One theory is that the fork was invented in ancient Greece. However, there is little evidence to support this claim. Another theory is that the fork was invented in the Byzantine Empire, where it was in common use by the 4th century. Records show that by the 9th century, a similar utensil known as a barjyn was in limited use in some elite circles of Persia.

One of the earliest mentions of a fork-like utensil comes from a manuscript from 1004 CE, which tells the story of Maria Argyropoulina, a Greek niece of Byzantine Emperor Basil II. According to the manuscript, Maria would use a certain golden instrument with two prongs to eat her meals, while the norm at the time was to cut food using a knife and eat it using one’s fingers.

Despite these early mentions of fork-like utensils, it was not until the 11th century that forks began to be used in Italy. The fork was introduced to Italy by Theophanu, the Byzantine wife of Emperor Otto II. By the 14th century, forks had become popular among merchants in Italy, but they were still not commonly used in other parts of Europe.

Evolution of the Fork

As one of the most common utensils used today, the fork has undergone a long and fascinating evolution. In this section, we’ll explore the history of the fork in three distinct periods: Ancient Times, Middle Ages, and Modern Times.

Fork in Ancient Times

The origins of the fork can be traced back to ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. However, the fork as we know it today did not exist during this time. Instead, people used primitive versions of the fork, such as two-pronged tools used for cooking and serving food.

Fork in Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, the fork was not widely used in Europe. It was considered a luxury item and was only used by the wealthy. It wasn’t until the 11th century that the fork began to gain popularity in Italy, where it was used to eat pasta. By the 14th century, the fork had become more common in Europe, but it was still not widely used.

Fork in Modern Times

The modern fork, with its four tines and curved shape, was developed in the 18th century. It quickly became the standard utensil for eating in Europe and eventually spread to other parts of the world. Today, forks come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and are made from a range of materials, including metal, plastic, and wood.

Cultural Impact of the Fork

Western World

The fork was initially met with resistance in the Western world, as it was seen as an unnecessary and effeminate utensil. However, it eventually gained acceptance and became a symbol of refinement and sophistication. Its use spread quickly throughout Europe, with different regions developing their own variations of the fork.

In the 18th century, the fork became an essential part of the formal table setting, with specific forks designed for different courses. This trend continued into the 19th century, with the creation of specialized forks for oysters, asparagus, and other foods.

Eastern World

In the Eastern world, chopsticks were the primary utensil for eating. While the fork was introduced to China during the Tang dynasty, it did not gain widespread popularity and was eventually abandoned. However, the fork was embraced in other parts of Asia, particularly in India and the Middle East.

In India, the fork was used primarily by the upper class and was seen as a status symbol. In the Middle East, the fork was used alongside the traditional utensils of the region, such as the knife and spoon.

Famous Fork Inventors

Byzantine Empire

In the Byzantine Empire, forks were used as early as the 4th century AD. However, they were not used for eating but rather for cooking. Large forks were used to turn meat over an open fire. It was not until the 10th century that forks began to be used for eating in Byzantine society.


The fork as we know it today has its origins in Italy, where in the 16th century, it began to be used as a tool for dining, replacing the traditional two-pronged style of spoon. The first forks were made of wood and had two prongs. Later, metal forks with four tines were developed, and these became popular throughout Europe.

One of the most famous Italian fork inventors is Cardinal Domenico Grimani. He is credited with introducing the fork to Venice in the early 16th century. Grimani was ridiculed for using a fork to eat, and it took some time for the utensil to catch on in the rest of Europe.

Another famous Italian fork inventor is Pellegrino Artusi. Artusi was a writer and gastronome who lived in the 19th century. He is credited with popularizing the use of the fork in Italy and spreading its use throughout Europe.


In conclusion, while the exact origin of the fork is uncertain, it is widely believed that the fork was first introduced to Europe during the 10th century by Theophanu Byzantine, the wife of Emperor Otto the 2nd. From there, the fork spread throughout Europe and eventually became an essential tool for dining for many cultures throughout history.

Despite the initial resistance to the fork, it eventually gained widespread acceptance and became a symbol of refinement and sophistication. Today, forks come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and are used for a multitude of purposes beyond just dining, such as cooking and serving.

While the invention of the fork may seem like a small and insignificant detail in the grand scheme of history, its impact on the way we eat and interact with our food cannot be overstated. The fork has become an integral part of our daily lives, and its invention has forever changed the way we approach dining and food culture.

Frequently Asked Questions

Who made the first fork?

The first fork was likely invented in ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia around 4,000 years ago. However, the fork as we know it today was first used in ancient Greece, where it was used for cooking and serving food.

Did Italians invent forks?

No, the fork was not invented by Italians. However, the fork was popularized in Italy in the 16th century, and Italians were the first to use forks as a dining utensil.

When were forks first used in England?

Forks were first introduced to England in the early 1600s, but they were not widely used until the 18th century. Prior to that, people in England used knives and spoons to eat.

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